Voices of the First World War: Weapons Of War. The trenches constructed during this period ran for thousands of miles and housed millions of soldiers who participated in this war. Food, ammunition, fresh troops, mail, and orders were delivered through these trenches. Similar tactics were used by the North Korean and Chinese forces in the Korean War when confronted with American airpower. Following the stand-to, officers conducted an inspection of the men and their equipment. These attacks usually failed, partly because the preliminary bombardment alerted the defenders to the imminence of an attack, thus allowing them time to bring up reserves for a counterattack, and because the bombardments themselves turned the “no-man’s-land” between the opposing sides into rough, shell-pocked terrain that slowed down the attacking infantry. It is very difficult to determine how many people died in these trenches during the WWI. These trenches arose within the first few months of the war’s outbreak, after the great offensives launched by Germany and France had shattered against the deadly, withering fire of the machine gun and the rapid-firing artillery piece. Throughout World War I, the major combatants slowly developed different ways of breaking the stalemate of trench warfare; the Germans focused more on new tactics while the British and French focused on tanks. When shell shock was later determined to be a psychological response to emotional trauma, men received little sympathy and were often accused of cowardice. As a result, when trench warfare was at its peak during the First World War, both sides ended up digging elaborate trenches and dugouts at the front lines. Multitudes of rats shared the trenches with soldiers and, even more horrifying, they fed upon the remains of the dead. By 1918 the Germans had constructed some trench systems that had a depth of 14 miles (22 km). Adopting a trick from the Germans, British snipers hid inside "O.P." Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! In making a trench, soil from the excavation is used to create raised parapets running both in front of and behind the trench. Around 500 000 men went to war, and having only around 5 million people living in Australia at the time, this was a large number of men. Not only did these unsanitary conditions contribute to the spread of disease, they also attracted an enemy despised by both sides—the lowly rat. Symptoms ranged from physical abnormalities (tics and tremors, impaired vision and hearing, and paralysis) to emotional manifestations (panic, anxiety, insomnia, and a near-catatonic state.). Forces of nature posed as great a threat as the opposing army. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Shell shock is defined as "mentally confused, upset, or exhausted as a result of excessive stress or battle fatigue". While over 2000 women served as nurses in the war, many women at home saw the need to help their country by getting hired into traditionally male jobs. Troops learned to fortify newly won positions immediately; employing spades and axes carried in…, …the millions, solidified into continuous trench systems that were sometimes hundreds of miles long. Once the cycle was completed, it would begin anew. They were getting paid less, but the women of Australia saw the need to get involved in helping their country. In April 1915, the Germans unleashed an especially sinister new weapon at Ypres in northwestern Belgium: poison gas. As terrible as the sights and smells were for the men to endure, the deafening noises that surrounded them during heavy shelling were terrifying. Warfare has a significant impact on individuals affected by conflict but who may be removed from direct physical aggression. During World War One there were many pressures that came, aside from the warfare and army recruitment. The front wall of the trench, known as the parapet, was about 10 feet high. During WWI, trenches were used to try to protect soldiers from poison gas, giving them more time to put on gas masks. Bashar al-Assad, rendered the tactic ineffective.
Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. British troops in a trench on the Western Front during World War I. French machine-gun position in the trenches on the Western Front during World War I. In trench warfare, both sides establish their fortifications by digging trenches and strengthen their position. However there were many cons such as: it did not offer a decisive result, the trenches were muddy and would fill with slushy mud and rainwater when it rained, sanitation was very poor, poison gas could easily kill those who did not put on their gas mask quickly enough, rats and lice were common and the contraction of disease was prevalent. Life in the trenches was nightmarish, aside from the usual rigors of combat. The pros of trench warfare was that the civilian population wasn't as affected, soldiers were well-covered, allowed time for preparation and was beneficial to weaker sides who lack soldier numbers. Poison gas was one such development. Each of the main lines of trenches was connected to each other and to the rear by a series of communications trenches that were dug roughly perpendicular to them.
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